The Battle of Newtonia (First)

September 30, 1862 in Newtonia, Missouri

Union Forces Commanded by
Brig. Gen. Friedrich Salomon
Strength Killed Wounded Missing / Captured
± ? 50 80 115
Confederate Forces Commanded by
Col. Douglas H. Cooper
Strength Killed Wounded Missing / Captured
± ? 220 280 ?
Conclusion: Confederate Victory

Following the Battle of Pea Ridge, in March, most Confederate and Union troops left northwestern Arkansas and southwestern Missouri. By late summer, Confederates returned to the area, which caused much apprehension in nearby Union-occupied Springfield, Missouri, and Fort Scott, Kansas. Col. Douglas Cooper reached the area on September 27 and assigned 2 of his units to Newtonia where there was a mill for making breadstuffs.

In mid-September, 2 brigades of Brig. Gen. James G. Blunt's Union Army of Kansas left Fort Scott for Southwest Missouri.

On September 29, Union scouts approached Newtonia but were chased away. Other Union troops appeared in nearby Granby where there were lead mines, and Cooper sent some reinforcements there. The next morning, Union troops appeared before Newtonia and fighting ensued by 7:00 A.M.

The Federals began driving the Confederates, but Confederate reinforcements arrived, swelling the numbers. The Federals gave way and retreated in haste. As they did so, some of their reinforcements appeared and helped to stem their retreat. The Union forces then renewed the attack, threatening the enemy right flank. But newly arrived Confederates stopped that attack and eventually forced the Federals to retire again. Pursuit of the Federals continued after dark. Union gunners posted artillery in the roadway to halt the pursuit.

As Confederate gunners observed the Union artillery fire for location, they fired back, creating panic. The Union retreat turned into a rout as some ran all the way to Sarcoxie, more than 10 miles away. Although the Confederates won the battle, they were unable to maintain themselves in the area given the great numbers of Union troops. Most Confederates retreated into northwest Arkansas.

The 1862 Confederate victories in southwestern Missouri at Newtonia and Clark's Mill were the South's apogee in the area. Afterwards, the only Confederates in the area belonged to raiding columns.
Newtonia was one of the few battles during the Civil War in which Native Americans played a significant role on both sides.

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